The traditions of visiting the baths of different peoples have quite a lot of differences. The most mild is the "hammam" bath. The temperature in it is the lowest (usually 30-55 degrees), and humidity, on the contrary, is elevated. Turkish baths - hammam - have always been famous for their healing properties. They are valuable because they perfectly clean the body and promote health. More and more people around the world are accustomed to the traditional Turkish bath ritual. Visiting such a bath can even people with diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
The design of the Turkish bath is truly luxurious, since going to the Turkish bath is a peculiar sacred tradition. Women in Turkey, visiting the bath, often discuss news and all kinds of things, actively conduct social life. The bathing procedure in Turkey can last all day.
The design of Turkish baths is significantly different from all other species. The thing is that the water boiler is located in the next room, while the steam enters the main room through special pipes. In addition to the steam room and the technical part, there is a room for relaxation in the hammam bath.
In the main room - steam room - professional bath-house attendants massage with soap foam. There is no hot steam and contrasting soul, as, indeed, brooms. In this bathhouse everything is provided for a quiet rest: the floor and the beds are heated, the steam is supplied with essential oils, and the scattered light makes the situation even more favorable.
How is the hammam
The eastern hammam has several rooms, located around the main room. In this room there is a special armchair or massage table - "gebek". In the adjoining rooms there are steam rooms, a cloakroom, a relaxation room and a room with a steam generator.
In the national oriental bathhouse, there are usually several steam rooms with different temperature levels, so that visitors can determine the most comfortable heating for themselves. Hammam has a fairly simple device principle. Walls, floors and benches gently heat the room, and steam is supplied through special bends with essential oils. Traditional hammam has three swimming pools with water of different temperatures.
Traditional hammam bath is represented by at least three rooms:
- The dressing room, or "jamekian", is located first.
- The waiting room, here the body warms up and is prepared for the subsequent ceremony. The temperature regime here is about 35 degrees.
- The steam room, Harare. In this room, the heat keeps at a level of 45 degrees, and the saturation of the steam is such that the visibility is not more than 1 m.
It is in the steam room that massage with soap foam, as well as skin cleansing, which contribute to its renewal. Then the process is replaced by water procedures. For the efficiency of the procedures to be higher, the steam is enriched with aromatic oils.
The bath room has a round shape, and in the center there is a massage table. On the perimeter of the hall are special niches in which very high humidity and high temperature
After that, visitors move to the next room, "soguklyuk" to lie down and relax, as well as to drink tea.
The therapeutic effect of bath hammam is extremely large. Here the pores expand and improve sweating, which helps to cleanse and rejuvenate the entire body. Together with the sweat all harmful substances are removed from the body. The soft temperature allows muscles to relax and favorably affects the nervous system.
Hammam helps to normalize the work of the respiratory system, and also serves as an excellent prevention of catarrhal diseases. Bath treatments also help to improve sleep and reduce stress. It is very useful for such a bath to people with problems of digestion and excess weight, since a mild temperature atmosphere contributes to the normal functioning of the body.
How to build a hammam
The construction of a Turkish bath is a rather complicated process that requires a professional approach. It will be best to use the services of specialists to get your own bath, which is so popular due to its healing properties. Below are some tips on how to build a hammam yourself.
First of all, it is worth noting that the traditions of the construction of the bath hammam have changed significantly, so you can create a hammam in a small area.
The bath room should be presented from at least a couple of separate rooms:
- Technical room, where the steam generator will be located (the area of such a room is about 1 m2);
- main hall.
To maintain an excellent insulation of humidity and heat indoors, you should consciously approach the interior trim.
Layers should be stacked as follows:
- layer of insulation,
- heat-insulating layer,
- layer of waterproofing,
- heating system (water or electric),
- leveling plaster,
- screed and final waterproofing.
Walls, ceiling and floor must be decorated in national Turkish traditions.
Select a location
The main advantage of bath hammam is that for its construction it is not required to create a separate building. You can place it in any room, be it a cottage, apartment or a wellness center. The main thing is that the water supply, sewerage, electricity and ventilation should be brought into this room.
To equip the hammam does not require a large area, so a small apartment is suitable.
The technical room should be located near the main, but not further than 15 m. Do not forget that after finishing the work on finishing the room, its internal volume will decrease by at least 10 cm.
The main materials from which the hammam bath is made are stone and metal. The use of wood here is unacceptable. The main requirement in the choice of materials - durability, resistance to temperature changes and moisture.
The best material for finishing a Turkish bath is marble. Since ancient times it has been used to decorate walls and beds. Due to its natural properties, it retains heat for a long time, allows to smooth out the temperature drops and is very durable. Such material will testify to the impeccable taste of the owner of the house, and the cost is quite high. Replace the natural stone of a fairly expensive breed can be ceramic tile or glass mosaic.
As a decoration often apply smalt, a small mosaic of glass of different colors, which is available in the form of plates or tiles of small size (from 1 to 5 cm). She can spread beautiful pictures with national ornaments on any surfaces. This material is very dense, has high frost resistance and heat resistance. The decorativeness of this material is obvious, Malta shines as if from the inside and creates a glow of light. There are more than 80 shades of Malta. Work on laying the mosaic is very painstaking, but the result will please you.
Ceramic tiles are a material that is easier to process and has a lower cost. This material can be worthy of competition with marble and smalt. You can create an inexpensive and at the same time very beautiful finish, because the choice of the sizes and shades of ceramic tiles is really huge.
Floor and ceiling
The floor covering in the Turkish bath is installed at a slight angle so that the water easily drains off and provides heating by means of a special system. The floor consists of several layers. Two layers of cement screed, between which the waterproofing layer is laid, and the final covering with marble, glass mosaic or ceramic tiles.
To avoid condensation on the ceiling, it should be made in the form of a vault or an arch, then water will flow down the walls. The non-standard shape of the ceiling makes the construction more difficult. The height of the steam room should be above 2.5 m.
Ways of heating
In the hammam bath, the heating and humidity level of the room is maintained due to the fact that the wall panels, floor covering and benches are heated. Special taps supply steam from a technical room, where it is produced by a steam generator.
There are two types of heating systems of the bath hammam - water and electric. Electric heating occurs due to heating elements located under all surfaces. However, a more profitable and affordable option would be water heating. It implies placement under all surfaces of small pipes along which hot water circulates. Regardless of which type of heating you have chosen, the technical unit should be located in a separate room.
Lighting and power supply
Electrical cable should be used heat-resistant, and fixtures with a high degree of waterproofing, as high humidity requires compliance with all safety measures.
Quite unusual in the design of this bath is the ceiling lighting in the form of a "starry sky." Such lighting will give the room a mysterious look.
Sewerage and ventilation
The sewage system in the main room of the bath must be equipped with a special lock to protect the room from extraneous flavors. The canalization of the bath-house is combined with a common house.
Especially carefully choose the equipment, including ventilation hood. To stay in the steam room was comfortable, air renewal should occur every 10 minutes.
The steam generator is the most important element of the Turkish bath. It is he who maintains a high humidity inside the room. The capacity of the steam generator directly depends on the area of the bath room. A special thermal sensor ensures that steam, when entering a bath, does not heat it above 55 degrees.
The steam generator itself is located in the next room, and the steam supply system under the couches in the bath. The control system is located at the entrance to the bath, it regulates the lighting and temperature systems.
In no case is the penetration of moisture into the console impermissible.
The Russian market offers steam generators produced in Sweden and Finland. The steam generator is connected 1-1.5 hours before the planned visit.
Bathing procedures will be even more pleasant if you saturate the steam with aromatic essential oils, most of which have a curative effect. The aromatherapy system sprays ethereal essences on its own.
Steam enters the room from the shops, where special devices are installed. The bathing procedure in the Turkish bath promotes increased sweating, especially for this, a source of water - kurna, a bathtub near the wall, which does not have a sink, is placed inside the steam room.
Kurna is a classical oriental element in which incense and a massage soap solution are prepared. Traditionally, the croons are made of marble. Kurna is equipped with graceful cranes with warm and cold water, made in the traditional oriental style.
Massage table and couches
When the installation of the kurna is completed, proceed to the arrangement of beds and a massage table. Most often, brick is used for their laying. To warm the couches and tables must be. The surface of the table can differ in size: it is quite wide, containing several people, or, conversely, narrow, designed for one person.
To make the masseur comfortable to work, the table should be made about 80 cm high. The final stage is the decoration with mosaic panels, marble or ceramics. For finishing beds and table professional bathhouse attendants are advised to use natural marble, which has the properties of durability and preservation of temperature.
Hammam in the traditional oriental style should be decorated with mosaic panels or decorated with ceramics paintings in national Turkish traditions. For finishing the walls use a marble tile or a multi-colored mosaic.
Naturally, the final design of the bath hammam depends on your personal desires and design ideas.
Safe operation rules
- The benches, wall panels and flooring should be warmed to optimum temperatures.
- Wiring is made of a heat-resistant and moisture-resistant cable.
- Elements of lighting should have low voltage and protection from moisture and temperature.
- Sewage opening is equipped with a special barrier, preventing penetration of aromas. Heating hammam is necessary for a couple of hours before the planned use, setting the air temperature around 50 degrees.
- After completing all the bath procedures, you need to clean using cleaners.
- Twice a year it is required to carry out a preventive inspection of technical equipment and to clean the steam generator.