The base of the house performs not so much a decorative function, as practical. In many cases, it serves to reduce heat loss (it is specially insulated), also prevents the spread of atmospheric and subterranean moisture to the walls of the house. Also transfers the load from the walls to the foundation - if the foundation is tape or slab. Therefore, the lining of the base of the house should be not only beautiful, but also functional. In accordance with this task, the finishing material is selected.
- 1 When to start the plinth finishing
- 2 Than to coat the base of the house
- 3 Preparation and warming
- 4 Painting, plastering and "coat"
- 5 How to fix porcelain stoneware or clinker tiles
- 6 Finishing the base of the house with a natural stone (shell, granite, dolomite, slate)
- 7 Facing boulder or small cobblestone
- 8 How to install plastic (PVC) plinth panels
- 9 Finishing of the pile foundation
When to start the plinth finishing
It is best to trim the base after the blind area around the house is made. In this case, the finishing material will hang over the path. As a result, even the most oblique rain or streams of water flowing down the walls can not get between the wall and the blind area - water gets on the track a few centimeters from the junction. And it is through this joint that water penetrates to the foundation, bringing dampness and other problems.
One more thing. Many speculate on whether to insulate the base or not. If you want to save on heating, the answer is to insulate, as well as the blind. The unit for the insulation and the lining of the plinth - one of the options - is shown in the photo below.
When using the basement floor as a residential, there are no issues with the insulation, as the answer is unambiguous - of course, to insulate. But even if you do not have a sub-floor, the heating costs will be much lower, and the floor in the house will become much warmer.
Than to coat the base of the house
There are a lot of materials for finishing the socle. The main requirements: moisture resistance, frost resistance, strength. These requirements are met by the following materials:
- Sawed on the plates natural stones (flagstone) or chipped, the so-called "torn stone":
- sandstone (plastushka);
- Small cobblestone.
- Large river pebbles.
- Clinker tiles (clinker bricks).
- Sidewalk tiles.
- Porcelain tiles.
- Decoration bricks.
- Facade panels, socle siding, PVC panels (these are all the names of one material).
- Plaster (decorative and "under the fur coat").
- Profiled sheeting.
Some of them cost a lot, the costs for some are insignificant, but they can all be used. Choose a material based on financial capabilities and previously used finishing materials - not the least role is played by the aesthetic component. On the technologies of finishing the socles with different materials and will be discussed.
Preparation and warming
First of all, if the existing basement is uneven, its surface is leveled with plaster. Mortar for plaster plinth use cement-sand: for 1 part of cement (portland cement M 400), take 4 parts of pure building sand, preferably river. For greater plasticity, you can add a little lime or a liquid soap (on a bucket of a solution of 50-80 gr). The solution should be of medium density: not to crawl from the wall. There is another option - use a special compound. For example, such as in the video.
If then laying a tile, stone or other similar material, after leveling the solution on its surface with the tip of the trowel (spatula), make incisions. They are applied in the form of a grid over the entire surface. These shallow grooves will provide the necessary support for the finish.
If the base is insulated, notches are not needed. Plates EPPS (extruded polystyrene) or foam is glued directly onto the plastered surface. They are light and sit well on the glue. Their surface is smeared with diluted tile adhesive and pressed against the plaster. Then the finishing materials are then fastened to the surface prepared in this way.
Painting, plastering and "coat"
In principle, if the plaster is well leveled, after drying the solution, the surface can be painted and then stops. This is an inexpensive, but quite viable option. If the paint is taken from the facade, which is intended for use on the street, a couple of years the plinth will have a good look. Then you have to remove the old paint and paint again - to maintain the appearance.
The next way is to apply a decorative layer over the usual plaster. And again, choose those compounds that are designed for outdoor use. They can be color-coded or colored. The only drawback - the plasters are often porous and clean off the splashes of dirt that fall on the walls during a bad weather, have to brush, and sometimes with a detergent.
Till now in some localities the way of furnish of a socle "under a fur coat" is popular. This is when the solution is not applied evenly, but in small fragments. Previously, they did it with a twig from twigs. Dunk it in a liquid solution, hit the handle with a stick so that the spray flew to the wall. So they made a "coat" - finish with a torn surface. Today, there are special devices for applying plaster, working on the compressor. With their help, this finish is easier.
Finishing the base of the house with the use of materials in the form of plates or tiles is technologically more difficult. So that it does not fall off, you need to know some subtleties.
How to enclose a house with a brick read here.
If heavy materials such as keramoronite or clinker bricks are simply planted on glue, on a plastered surface with grooves, they will probably hold properly. And even they can stand for a while. Even a few years. But then they start to fall off together with the solution. Especially in places where there are no grooves or they have insufficient depth. To improve adhesion, an impregnation layer can be applied that improves adhesion (adhesion), but this is not a guarantee, especially if the material is heavy.
The same picture will be if you glue the materials directly on the heater. The surface is smooth, easy to glue. But after a while the finish will fall. Faster than with a plastered surface. About this - video.
To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to fix a metal paint net, preferably galvanized. It is attached with dowels, putting on a dowel-nail a piece of galvanizing, the size of which is greater than the value of the cell. Attach top, bottom and staggered in the middle. It turns out a reliable basis for a material of any severity.
The glue is applied to the plinth and to the tile. On the tile remove the notched trowel, put into place, tapping the handle trowels put in place, leveling the plane. The distance between the tiles is maintained using crosses, only their thickness is taken a significant 3-5 mm.
In general, the technology of laying is similar to the laying of tiles. The only difference is that the glue must be special, for outdoor work. The second difference: the finishing materials for the socle are beginning to be laid from below: they are heavy and they need support. You rely on the blind for the bottom row, for it - the second, etc.
Finishing the base of the house with a natural stone (shell, granite, dolomite, slate)
No matter how attractive artificial shiny surfaces seemed, the rough stone for some reason causes great sympathy. But laying the foundation of the buta is difficult and not everyone can do it so well that he can stand on the house. But you can finish off the finished monolithic or prefabricated foundation with a natural stone by your own hands, especially if at least part of the work on the construction of the house is done personally.
It is clear that no one will be able to mount entire stones: too heavy finish will be obtained, and very voluminous. That's why they invented a stone to cut or stab. Depending on the technology it turns out either a flat "flagstone" - with almost flat surfaces, or "ragged stone" with an uneven face. Sometimes these materials are cut into identical rectangles, sometimes left in the form of uneven plates, but in any case it is a natural stone and the finish of the basement of the house from it turns out to be beautiful and water resistant.
There is this material from expensive stones, for example - marble, there are cheaper - slate, dolomite, schignite, lemisite, granite, etc. They look very impressive. Especially if it's a torn stone, although the flagstone sometimes looks no worse.
Surface preparation will be exactly the same: it is best to fill the plastered mesh on the plastered basement, and lay the stone plates on it already on the glue. If they are even - a natural stone with treated edges - the stacking technology will be one to one repeated as described above.
If a stone with torn edges, the finish of the base of the house becomes more difficult: it is necessary to select plates in such a way that the seams are not too large. When using this version of the finishing stone, you will need a Bulgarian with a disc on the stone: most likely you have to saw the plates of the lower and upper rows. You will need to correct the corners as well. An example of such technology is shown in the video.
There is a second way. The plastered surface of the plinth is first smeared with a compound to improve adhesion (adhesion), then the glue is applied to the glue. They are fixed in the given position with the help of scraps of the same stone or pieces of the right size. The stitches remain unfilled. After the glue "seized" the seams are filled with a thin solution from the building syringe, as necessary rubbing and wringing.
In any case, the adhesive that has fallen on the finish must be removed in a timely manner. With a frozen to do this will be very difficult, and the look of glue is far from attractive.
Sometimes, for a more precise drawing, the seams between the stone plates are painted with dark paint. Then the surface is covered with protective impregnation. It gives the stone a light shine, and also often increases the water repellent properties.
An example of the lining of the socle with a natural stone according to the second technology is shown in the following video.
About the siding of the house siding is written here.
Facing boulder or small cobblestone
Boulder or cobblestone is not necessary to buy. It can be dialed on a river or on a pebbly beach by the sea. The rolled stones are chosen to be flatter - the rounds are harder to "mount". The order of work and all the other details are almost the same as in the case of finishing with natural stone. The only difference is that these stones must be washed in water with a detergent before use. Firstly, the water in our reservoirs can have oils, and they need to be removed, and secondly, they can be in clay or algae, which can cause the finish to fall off.
To make it look organic, you can on the path next to the place where you will cover the basement, pre-lay out the "picture" of the facing from the cobblestones. They have different shades and random combinations of them are not always attractive. Laying it all side by side, you will have an idea of what will happen as a result.
See the video about the features of the plinth trim.
How to install plastic (PVC) plinth panels
This type of decoration is called differently: socle or facade panels, socle siding. They have a diverse appearance: for different types of stone, tile, brick.
To install PVC panels on the plinth, it is necessary to assemble the frame. It is made of a wooden beam 50 * 50 mm. Since the finish will be on the street, the wood needs to be protected with impregnating agents that prevent decay and protect against pests.
The sequence of actions is as follows:
- With the help of a level (laser or hydro level), the required height of the finish is marked on all corners of the house.
- In these places, nails are screwed (screws are screwed in), a marker (lace) is stretched between them, which marks the height of the plinth trim.
- By this cord around the whole perimeter of the house the beam is nailed. Its upper edge must be precisely directed along the cord.
- If the height of one panel is not enough, you will need to do another row of the beam, which will be joined by two sheets, and you will also need the same strapping under the lower end of the panel.