Providing water to plants and plantings is one of the concerns of homeowners. Someone watered beds with vegetables, some flowers and lawns, and someone needs to provide a garden with water. In any case, the procedure takes a lot of time. But this is not all: in the usual way, a crust forms on the surface, which prevents the plants from developing, because the soil has to be loosened. All these problems are solved if drip irrigation is made. You can buy ready-made sets, order development and installation "on a turn-key basis" and you can do it yourself. Here's how to make drip irrigation yourself and will be discussed in this article.
- 1 Principle of operation and varieties
- 2 Advantages and disadvantages
- 3 Components and layout options
- 4 Drip irrigation by one's own hands: examples of the device
Principle of operation and varieties
This technology was tested several decades ago. Its results were so impressive that the system was widely used. The basic idea is that water is fed to the roots of plants. There are two ways:
- poured on the surface near the stem;
- is fed underground into the root formation zone.
The first way is easier to install, the second one is more expensive: you need a special hose or drip tape for underground laying, a decent amount of ground work. For a temperate climate, there is no particular difference - both ways work well. But in regions with a very hot summer the underground gasket showed itself better: less water evaporates and more it gets to plants.
There are gravity systems - they need a water tank installed at a height of not less than 1.5 meters, there are systems with stable pressure. They have a pump and a control group - pressure gauges and valves, creating the required force. There are fully automated drip irrigation systems. In the simplest version, this is a valve with a timer that opens the water supply for a specified period of time. More complex systems can control the flow rate separately for each of the water supply lines, testing the soil moisture and determining the weather. These systems operate under the guidance of processors, the operating modes can be set from the control panel or computer.
Advantages and disadvantages
Drip irrigation has many advantages and they are all significant:
- Significantly reduces labor intensity. The system can be fully automated, but in the simplest version, irrigation requires just a few minutes of your attention.
- Reduces water consumption. This is due to the fact that moisture is supplied only under the roots, other areas are excluded.
- The need for frequent loosening disappears. With a dosed supply of water to a small area, the crust on the soil is not formed, respectively, it does not need to be broken.
- Plants develop better, yield increases. Due to the fact that water is fed into one zone, the root system develops in this place. It has a greater number of fine roots, becomes more cloddy, absorbs moisture faster. All this contributes to rapid growth and more abundant fruit bearing.
- There is an opportunity to organize a radical top dressing. And the consumption of fertilizers due to point feed is also minimal.
The economic efficiency of drip irrigation systems has been proven repeatedly even on an industrial scale. In private greenhouses and kitchen gardens the effect will be no less significant: the cost of creating a system can be reduced to a small amount, and all the pluses will remain.
Cons, too, there are, but very few:
- For normal operation requires water filtration, and this is an additional cost. The system can also function without filters, but then it is necessary to consider a purge / rinse system to eliminate clogs.
- Droppers over time are clogged and require cleaning or replacement.
- If thin-walled tapes are used, they can be damaged by birds, insects or rodents. There are places of unscheduled water consumption.
- The device requires time and money.
- Periodic maintenance is required - blow the pipes or clean the droppers, check the hose mounting, change the filters.
As you can see, the list of shortcomings is not big, but they are not very serious. This is a really useful thing in the garden, in the garden, on the lawn, in the flowerbed or in the greenhouse.
Components and layout options
Drip irrigation systems can be arranged by having any source of water. A well, a well, a river, a lake, a centralized water supply, even rain water in the tanks will do. The main thing is to have enough water.
The main pipeline is connected to the source, which brings water to the watering point. Then he goes on one side of the irrigated area, at the end it is drowned out.
In front of the beds, tees are inserted into the pipeline, the drip pipes (pipes) or tapes attached to the lateral terminal. They have special droppers, through which water is fed to plants.
Between the outlet from the source and the first branch to the bed, it is desirable to install a filter or a filter system. They are not needed if the system is powered by a domestic water pipe. If you pump water from a lake, a river, a tank with rainwater, filters are mandatory: there can be a lot of pollution and the system will be too often hammered. The types of filters and their number are determined depending on the state of the water.
How to clean water from a well and a well is described here.
Hoses for drip irrigation are sold in coils from 50 to 1000 meters. They already built in water consumption points: labyrinths, through which water flows before it enters the outlet. These sucking hoses provide the same amount of water throughout the entire line, regardless of the terrain. Due to this labyrinth, the flow at any point of irrigation is practically the same.
They differ in the following characteristics:
- Rigidity of the tube. Drip hoses - are hard, they are soft. Soft are called tapes, hard ones are called hoses. Hard can be used up to 10 seasons, soft - up to 3-4. Tapes are:
- Thin-walled - with a wall thickness of 0.1-0.3 mm. They are laid only on the surface, their service life is 1 season.
- Thick-walled tapes have a wall of 0.31-0.81 mm, the service life is up to 3-4 seasons, there is both for ground and underground laying.
- Diameter. Affects the performance and maximum length of the line. The internal diameter of the hoses can be from 14 to 25 mm, tapes from 12 to 22 mm. Among the tapes the most common size is 16 mm.
- Water flow rate. It is selected depending on the required irrigation intensity. Hoses can dispense 0,6-8,0 l / hour, thin-walled tapes - 0,25-2,9 l / hour, thick-walled tapes 2,0-8,0 l / hour. This flow characteristic is through each dropper.
- Distance between droppers. It can be from 10 to 100 cm. It is chosen depending on the required amount of water and on how often plants are planted.
- Droppers may be with one output or two. The water flow rate remains stable. Only the depth and the area over which water flows vary. At one outlet, the area is less, the depth is greater, with two outlets the irrigation area increases, the depth decreases.