Smooth walls are an attribute of good repair, but it is expensive to hire a brigade. Puttying the walls with your own hands is not so difficult that it can not be dealt with. It is important to consistently perform all actions. Immediately get the ideal wall for painting it will be unlikely, but under the wallpaper you can plaster without much difficulty. And to help you describe the process, photos and videos.
What are and when to use
Putty - is the preparation of surfaces for finish finishing. With its help, ensure that the wall was (or looked) perfectly flat. It is applied to relatively flat surfaces. If you need to level the walls, take out the corners at 90 °, do this with plaster or plasterboard. Putty for this is not intended.
As well as plasters, putties consist of an astringent, a filler and the additives giving to them special properties. From plasters they are distinguished by the use of aggregates - sand - fine fractions. The binder is used in two types - cement or gypsum, sometimes lime is added to them, polymer additives. Accordingly, putty is gypsum and cement.
There are also polymer fillers - acrylic and latex. They are created on the basis of synthetic substances, the properties of which vary depending on the additives. They are not natural, but have a longer service life, they also withstand more cycles of freezing / defrosting. For facade works it is better to choose them. In the rooms they are not the best choice, since they have a small vapor permeability, which can cause the dampness of the walls, the appearance of fungus and mold. They are convenient because they can be used on wooden and metal surfaces.
By type of application, all putties are divided into two types: starting and finishing. In the starting, grains of a larger size are used, 0.3-0.8 mm. Because of what the surface is slightly rough. Apply them at the first stage to seal depressions and cracks. In finishing compositions, sand is practically dust with a very fine grain of 0.1-0.3 mm. This allows a smooth surface to be obtained.
Cement plasters - area of application, advantages and disadvantages
Cement plasters are cheaper than gypsum plasters, they can be applied in a thicker layer - some compositions up to 10 mm. After mixing (stirring with water) can be used for about 3 hours. The plasticity of the composition is affected by temperature and humidity. Usually it is indicated for + 20 ° C and humidity 60-65%.
Cement plasters are universal. They are used both for interior decoration inside and outside. Moreover, most of the façade compositions are made on the basis of cement, as they withstand more defrost / freeze cycles and create a stronger surface. They also feel better in wet rooms. If you need to plaster the bathroom or kitchen, use a better composition based on cement.
By color, cement plasters can be gray, white and ultra-white. It depends on the type of cement used. White compounds are more expensive, as more expensive brands are used, because white is more often done with finishing compounds.
Lack of cement plasters - a long period of setting - a few days for complete drying - this is the norm. Before applying the next layer should take several hours. From 2-3 hours with a layer of 1 mm, up to 24 at a thickness of 6 mm. Since it is rarely possible to achieve an even surface over a single layer - there may be three or more - the puttying with cement plasters will last for a long time. For this reason, their popularity is low enough.
Gypsum plasters, their features
The layer of application of gypsum putty - 0.5-10 mm, depending on the type. They dry much faster, which positively affects the speed of finishing works. On the other hand, the mixed compound should be used within 30-60 minutes, so they mix such putties in small portions. This is not very convenient. If you put the walls together for the first time, start with small kneading. Gradually decide how many times you can work out. Also note that the consumption of starting plaster is more than finish - the thickness of the layer is different and do not make a mistake in the volume.
Gypsum plasters without modifying additives are designed for dry rooms. There are also compositions for moist, but this is necessarily indicated on the packaging, since they contain hydrophobic additives.
Despite the higher price and the short shelf life of the locked portion, plaster based gypsum is now more popular. They are more plastic, with their use it is easier to achieve the required smoothness of the surface, it is easier for them to work with beginners and professionals. If the puttying of walls is unfamiliar to you, use gypsum compounds.
The technique of applying plasters is the same for any composition. It matters only compliance with the formulation shown on the package (the ratio of water and dry weight) and the time for which it should be used. The rest of the plaster technique is the same.
Work starts on a dry and clean foundation. If there is an old coating, everything that can fall off is scraped off, cracks dilate, remove screws and nails, remnants of wallpaper and other coatings.
As it is sad, you need to remove both paint and whitewash. Paint for the reason that to her putty badly sticks, and if it sticks, it can later fall off. Whitewash is removed because it is loose. With it after the primer clutch is normal, but after a while the finish begins to crack and peel off. If you do not want to remodel the ceiling or wall a year and a half later, lime must be cleaned.
After the old coating is removed, remove the dust. If there is an industrial vacuum cleaner, you can use it (household can not be broken). If there is no such equipment, you can go first with a dry broom, then with a brush and finally - with a slightly damp rag to collect the remains.
Priming of walls under plaster is used to ensure that the materials are better adhered. Its second task is to reduce the amount of moisture absorbed by the substrate. This is very important on porous surfaces such as bricks, dry plastered walls, etc. On loose and prone to shattering walls apply special compositions of deep penetration. They bind the particles of the material to themselves, increasing the overall strength of the substrate.
To get a guaranteed good result, this stage is better not to miss. Even though primers cost a lot.
Primers are sold either in the form of ready-to-use mixtures or in the form of liquid concentrates. The second type requires additional dilution with water. In any case, read the instructions carefully before use and strictly follow it.
Usually the technology is as follows: a composition is poured into the container, distributed over the surface with a brush or roller. In difficult places - corners and bends, thoroughly pass by brush. If two or more layers are needed, they are applied after the previous one has dried completely.
Directly for the puttying of the walls, only two spatulas will be needed. One large, with a long blade (300-600 mm) and one small. A small composition is taken out of the container and distributed over a large blade. They also remove the remains from the blade and again distribute them along the edge. A large spatula is needed directly to distribute the composition along the wall.
The blade of a large spatula should be made of stainless steel. It should be flexible, without jags and scratches. If you look at it "in profile" you can see that its ends are slightly bent in one direction. This is done specially, so that with the putty of walls or ceiling, there are no stripes on the surface from the edges of the blade. You can also work with a straight trowel, but you can not get rid of the streaks, as a result - after drying you will have to compare them, and this work is long and dusty.
Another need is a container in which the putty is ground and a construction mixer or a drill with a mixing head. Capacity is better to take a plastic - a bucket or basin with high sides. Pay attention to the shape of the bottom. The transition from the bottom to the walls should be smooth. Then you can mix the whole composition without residue and lumps.
Wall plastering technique
In general, everything is said, but we will concentrate on the process and the sequence of works. First putty knead. The bucket is poured into water, dry composition is added to it, making sure that there are no lumps. Some time you have to wait until the whole mass gets wet, then you can stir. The kneading can be mechanical or manual. This is indicated on the package with putty. When you have achieved a homogeneous composition without lumps, you can start work.
Apply the putty on the wall with a large spatula. The composition is superimposed on it small, forming a roller at the edge of the blade two to three centimeters wide and about a centimeter in height. If the composition is thick, you can take a solution more, if liquid, it can flow, because the roller is made small in size.
Step 1. Starting putty. If there are large irregularities - more than 3 mm, they are first covered with starting putty. If the irregularities are only in places, they only close them, bringing them to the same level as the surface. If there are a lot of them, you'll have to putty the entire surface. When work it is desirable not to exceed the maximum permissible thickness of the layer, otherwise there may be cracks or the finish will fall off. If there are no significant unevennesses, you can do without this layer. But in this case, the expense of the finish line will be greater, and it costs more than the starting one.
The thickness of the putty layer, which remains on the wall, is regulated by the tilt angle of the spatula. If it is strongly tilted to the wall, the layer remains thicker if the angle is closer to the straight (60-70 °) - it can be 1 mm.
There is another technique for applying putty. It is called "on the scuffle". In this case, put the spatula perpendicular to the wall. As a result, only pores, bands and other defects are masked, the consumption is minimal. But this technique works only on flat walls, without deviations in geometry. Plastering of uneven walls with differences of more than 1-2 mm by this method is impossible.
Step 2. Align the first layer. After the starting layer has dried (the time is indicated on the package) sandpaper is taken for grinding and the most prominent irregularities are equaled by it. Most often these are bands, but inexperience can also appear in the hillocks. After the polishing is finished, the dust from the walls is swept away with a broom, then they are dried with a dry brush.
Step 3. Finishing putty of walls. On the cleaned walls apply a layer of finishing putty, a thickness of not more than a few millimeters. At this stage, you should already try to get a smooth surface, carefully leveling the composition. Leave to dry.
Step 4. Alignment of the trailing layers. For this step, take a grid with a smaller cell. They are trying to get an even surface. For a good result, good lighting is necessary. Also, the absence of defects is checked by the palm.
That's all. Next, step 3 and 4 are repeated until the result satisfies you. A little about the extent to which it is necessary to level the walls. It all depends on the type of finish that you have chosen. If the puttying of the walls is done under the wallpaper, there is no need to achieve perfect smoothness. Even the thinnest wallpapers hide small differences. Less demanding to the surface of multi-layer paper wallpaper - duplex or triplex. A more even base is needed under the non-woven base, as well as for all vinyl cuts except foamed and textured.
Requirements for putty for painting above. Paint does not hide even the most insignificant flaws, therefore it is necessary to equalize to an ideal condition. It can take up to six very thin layers.
How to make smooth corners
Several ways you saw in the video - it's just good to shoot the mass from the very corner. It seems that everything is simple, but in practice it turns out with difficulty and not very smoothly. There are special corner trowels for the beginner plasterers for the outer and inner corners.
Putting in a corner a certain amount of putty, they spend it, removing excess and forming an ideal line. It's easier to work with them.