The best finishing material for the bathroom is a ceramic tile, but it requires perfectly flat walls for its installation. Otherwise, the tile will be laid out crookedly, and will not last long due to the presence of voids. Therefore, before proceeding to the facing of the walls, it is necessary to deal with their alignment.
Evaluation of the need for wall alignment
The problem of the curvature of the wall surface in the bathroom is especially relevant for old houses, where repair work has been carried out repeatedly and, as a consequence, layers of finishing have accumulated, forming irregularities. When planning a major overhaul, experts recommend completely removing old layers of finishing materials to the base of the walls, and then proceed with the preparatory work. But it should be noted that in some cases radical measures are not required, for example, if the irregularities are local and can be banally plastered.
To determine whether the capital preparation of the foundation is required for facing, the following wall parameters should be evaluated:
- accuracy of angles;
- alignment of vertical and horizontal lines;
- the presence of depressions and protrusions.
You can check with the help of a measuring tape, level, slats, plumb lines and a thin cord.
If the deviations of the planes exceed 3 mm, then the leveling of the walls will be necessary. This task can be done in two ways - plastering and sheeting with sheet materials, i.e. plasterboard or plastic. The first method is more time consuming, but its result is the highest quality and reliable. As for the second option, it will be the best choice for a large bathroom, or if the curvature of the walls is quite large.
The traditional method - leveling with plaster
Plastering of walls under a tile is the most common method of leveling surfaces in a bathroom. But it should be taken into account that with irregularities exceeding 5 cm this method will not be practical. Plastering is considered one of the dirtiest kinds of finishing works, therefore it is necessary to cover the plumbing with construction film, and also work in protective clothing and a respirator.
The first step is preparatory activities, which include:
- Complete elimination of old finishes with a spatula. To make the job less dusty, you should spray the walls with water from a spray gun.
- Filling cracks with cement mortar. Previously, they need to be cleaned and slightly expanded with a trowel.
- Apply primer to cleaned walls. For porous surfaces, use a mixture of deep penetration, and for dense - concrete-contact.
- Inflexible, loose walls must be reinforced. If the house is paneled, the mesh netting is suitable, which is fastened with nails, and for wooden surfaces it is better to use shingles.
- Arrangement of beacons with the help of plumbs, at a distance of not more than 150 cm. They will help to more accurately level the base under the tile.
Once the preparatory work is completed, you can proceed with the preparation of the mortar and direct plastering. The mixture is prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, which is placed on the packaging. Then, using a spatula, it is gradually applied to the prepared wall in small sections, and leveled by beacon rule. Thus, all the walls in the bathroom are plastered.
During the work, you need to gradually remove the beacons until the solution has seized, and fill the formed depressions. After finishing the walls, you need to let them dry completely, and then apply a primer of deep penetration. Once the surface dries, you can start laying ceramic tiles.
Aligning the walls in the bathroom with gypsum cardboard refers to an alternative technique, which is also called "dry". Drywall allows you to create a perfectly flat surface, which can then be used for laying ceramic tiles. The process of leveling the walls takes a minimum of time, and besides, it does not differ in complexity.
To align the walls of the bathroom with sheets of moisture-resistant drywall, you need to do the following:
- Prepare the walls in the same way as before applying the plaster - clean the old finish and apply a primer.
- Measure walls and prepare drywall sheets. To cut the material, an ordinary kitchen knife is suitable.
- On the prepared sheets in the center and perimeter, a special glue is applied in the form of small cakes, with a distance of about 30 cm. Then they are pressed against the wall. If small sheets of material are used, they should be staggered.
- By placing the sheets on one wall, it is important to check the surfaces for irregularities with a level. This should be done immediately, while the glue is not dry. After eliminating the drawbacks, you can proceed to pasting the next wall.
- In the end, shpaklyuyut seams between sheets of gypsum board, and treated all the walls with a primer.
In small-sized bathrooms it is not recommended to level the walls with gypsum plasterboard. their area will become even smaller.
The choice of the method of wall alignment will depend on the dimensions of the bathroom, such as the base surface and the degree of unevenness.
1. Panel house. As a rule, in bathrooms of panel houses there are rarely difficulties with a significant unevenness of the walls, the exception may be the curvature of the block itself. In this case it is best to resort to plastering. Installation of drywall sheets will be advisable in the presence of significant surface defects, but if the bathroom has a fairly large area.
2. Monolithic house. In such buildings in the bathrooms one wall is concrete, and the rest are made of foam concrete or paragloss gypsum blocks. Significant curvature is eliminated, so it is best to level the surfaces by plastering, but during the work it will be necessary to apply several layers of the primer.
3. Brick house. Such buildings are the most problematic, especially if they were built several dozen years ago. Alignment of brick walls can be carried out in any convenient way - plastering or installation of sheet materials. The latter option will be more acceptable, because curvature of surfaces does not rarely reach 5 cm, and their plastering will take a lot of time and building materials.
The procedure for leveling the walls in a bathroom for ceramic tiles is an important process, so it should be done carefully and not save on materials. After all, the quality of the work done will depend on the longevity of the cladding and the aesthetics of the entire room.