The facing of the bathroom with tiles is the most popular and widespread option, despite the huge variety of modern finishing materials. The key to obtaining an excellent result after the repair is not only the professionalism of the builders and the quality materials chosen, but also the thorough preparation of the surface before laying the tiles. Smooth, smooth base facilitates subsequent work, reduces the consumption of glue for tiles, increases the service life of the finished coating.
Preparation of the surface for laying tiles
The installation of ceramic, tile or other tiles requires mandatory pre-treatment of the surface. This process is divided into several stages: assessing the condition of the existing surface, dismantling the old coating, leveling, puttying, finishing, priming, waterproofing. Depending on the condition of the walls, some stages can be lowered or vice versa - new ones can be added.
Initial diagnostics includes an assessment of the general condition of the walls, the strength of the old coating, the calculation of the necessary material. The next stage is cleaning the surface of the old tile, plaster, wallpaper, whitewash, paint, etc. The third stage - leveling the walls. Then comes the finishing treatment (putty + priming) and waterproofing.
Before you get started, you need to prepare the tools that you might need:
- hammer, perforator (to remove the old coating from the concrete base);
- level, plumb, beacons (for leveling walls);
- brushes, platens, trowels, spatulas, sandpaper, grater, tape measure;
- Special clothing (glasses, rubber gloves, etc.).
Before starting work, it is necessary to close the existing plumbing fixtures (bath, shower, sink) to prevent splintering of old tiles and other debris.
Dismantling of the old coating
Removal of the old coating is done in different ways, depending on the material from which it is made. For example, if there is a wooden shingle under the plaster layer, then this layer is completely removed.
If there is brickwork in the base, then plaster can not be removed from it. It will be enough to check its strength and integrity, and to clean the damaged areas. If necessary, the plaster is applied with a new layer. In this case, special attention is paid to leveling the wall.
If the surface is tiled, then the tile must be completely removed and the wall cleaned of the glue. To do this, it is necessary to clean the seams well and moisten the surface abundantly. After a couple of hours, you can start dismantling. The edge tiles should be picked up with a chisel, with a hammer, press the tool into a soft mixture, and gently remove the tile.
If the old tile does not make sense to save entirely, then you can use a power tool with a bit-head.
The painted coating is completely cleaned before plastering using a grinding wheel. If the paint is removed badly, then you can use a special tool to remove it. The whitewash is removed using a spray gun and scraper. Decorative plaster is removed by the power tool or manually.
Old wallpaper is removed completely, and the remnants of the glue are carefully cleaned. The remaining paper reduces the durability of the finished tile.
After dismantling the old coating, the wall must be carefully sanded and polished if necessary. Next, the surface should be dust-free (with a damp cloth), and after complete drying, apply a primer. The use of a primer will help reduce the consumption of the adhesive, increase its adhesion to the surface to be treated, and also prevent the appearance of mold and fungus.
Walls can have the following types of irregularities:
- deviations in different directions;
- roughness, chipped at the intersection of wall panels;
- convexity and concavity.
The choice of how to eliminate irregularities depends on their nature and severity. For example, it is possible to level the walls with plaster, provided that the height difference is not more than 5-6 cm. When the difference is more than 6 cm, plasterboard sheets are used.
If it concerns rooms with high humidity (bathroom), then it is best to use a cement-sand mixture for leveling.
Once the cleaned, degreased and primed surface has dried, you can begin to eliminate irregularities and roughness, different gradients, etc.
If the wall has a height of up to 1 cm, then there is no need to correct this curvature - it will leave after tiling. If the curvature is 1-6 cm, then this unevenness should be removed. For this purpose, beacons are installed along the edges of the walls, a fishing line is drawn between them and a rail is mounted.
The plaster solution prepared according to the instructions is applied to the wall between the beacons. It is most convenient to apply it with a spatula, using the rule for aligning the tool. Ambassadors for complete drying of the plaster, the wall should be treated with an antiseptic compound and covered with a primer. The soil forms a thin, smooth film, which strengthens adhesion between the plaster and the subsequent layer of finishing putty or glue.
This option is that the cleaned and primed surface is covered with sheets of gypsum board. Mounting sheets starts at the bottom edge of the wall. Depending on the type of substrate, the gypsum board is glued, nailed or fastened with screws. Mandatory level control to create a perfectly flat surface.
After installing all the sheets, the seams between them are sealed with the finishing putty. The finished coating is primed again. For wet rooms should choose a drywall with a very high moisture resistance.
Aligning walls with a high degree of deformation
If the surface is strongly deformed, then leveling with putty or drywall sheets will not work here. For leveling, metal profiles with gypsum boards are used.
The order of work in this case is as follows:
- calculation of the necessary amount of plasterboard, metal profile and fastening to it;
- installation profile (the distance between the fastenings of the structure should not exceed 50-60 cm);
- installation of waterproofing film;
- fastening of plasterboard.
This method largely "eats" the space of the room, this should not be forgotten. Therefore, the profile is attached as close to the wall as possible.
How to properly prepare the surface of different materials
When preparing surfaces from different materials, there are some subtleties. The most reliable and lasting bases are concrete and brickwork. On these bases in turn, 3 layers are applied: plaster, putty, primer.
The most labor-consuming surface is wooden. To begin with, the wall is covered with a special primer on wood in several layers. After complete drying of the primer, the plaster grid is applied and fastened. Further work is carried out.
In general, tile is not recommended to be applied to a wooden covering. The tree will not breathe, which means that the probability of the appearance of fungus is high. In addition, the tree has the property of changing in size over time, so the lifetime of the tile laid on the wooden cover is significantly lower than in similar situations, but with other coatings.
Waterproofing of walls
The final stage of preparing the walls for laying the tiles are protective measures. This is, first of all, waterproofing. It is available in the form of a film or a special composition.
For preparation of a floor the waterproofing in a roll is more often used, and for walls it is better to choose a liquid composition. Sometimes the waterproofing mixture is added directly to the tile adhesive. Its properties do not change from this, and the efficiency increases significantly.
To carry out preparatory work should be treated with special care and attention. Do not rush, layers of plaster, putty, primer should achieve maximum drying. And only then you can apply the next layer. The more carefully this stage is executed, the more durable, beautiful and durable will be the finished coating!
For more information on preparing walls before laying the tiles, see the following video.