Solve the problem of hot water in an apartment or a private house, in the country, you can heat water with electric water heaters. There are several types and to decide which water heater is best for your situation, you need to know their advantages, disadvantages and peculiarities of each type of equipment for heating water.
- 1 What are domestic water heaters and how do they differ?
- 2 Cumulative models
- 3 Flowing water heaters
- 4 Which water heater is better: running or storage
- 5 Storage water heaters
- 6 Filling water heaters
What are domestic water heaters and how do they differ?
First of all, water heaters differ in the principle of operation. They are:
- flow type - heat the water passing through the device;
- storage type - the water is heated in the heater tank;
- Flow-accumulating - have two modes of operation;
Which water heater is harder to say. If we talk about the appearance, the main external difference is the size. The accumulation models are large, flowing - small. But the size is not all that is necessary to understand what is best for you. You need to know the advantages and disadvantages of each type of equipment.
The storage water heater (second name - boiler) has a capacity of solid sizes - from 30 to 200 liters. Inside there is a heating element - heater. It can be one or more. The heating elements can be connected in parallel (they always work simultaneously) or cascades (they are switched on as required). With cascade switching, there are several heating modes - for more rational consumption of electricity.
Many more models contain a thermometer to conveniently monitor the water temperature and the thermostat to maintain the set temperature. The desired temperature is set by the thermostat knob-thermostat in a certain position.
In a storage water heater there is always a certain volume of water. It is heated by means of electric heaters. There are two types:
- TES (Tribbed EelectroHagglomerator). Inexpensive classical solution. They quickly and easily change, in any specialized store is available in a wide range. The disadvantage is that the water is heated for a long time.
- Spiral heating element. More powerful heaters, which quickly heat large volumes of water, can accurately maintain the desired temperature. But they are more expensive (it affects the price of the water heater), it is also more difficult to replace them.
Principle of operation
Regardless of the type of heater installed, the operation principle of the storage water heater is the same. When the set temperature is reached, the thermostat switches off the power supply, the heating stops. Further, the temperature is maintained in automatic mode. When the water cools down to 1 degree or in the tank at the expense of adding cold, the heating turns on. As soon as the set temperature is reached (more precisely - a degree above the set temperature), the heating stops. This is how storage water heaters work with automation. They are convenient because they do not overheat (if the automation is OK) and you always have hot water available, which is heated the way you wanted. Such equipment usually has two operating modes - with or without temperature control.
To keep the water temperature as long as possible, use a heater. It is laid between the walls of the tank and the shell. With good thermal insulation, even with hot water, the body remains cold, slightly warm. It's clear, if the temperature lasts a long time, the costs of maintaining it are not high. Even if you turn off the temperature maintenance function, the water will be hot even after 24 hours.
There are very simple electric water-heaters in which there is no thermostat. They are switched on / off manually by the toggle switch. As you know, in this case there is a possibility that the water heater will boil and fail (if you forget to turn it off).
There is one more nuance - the stepwise inclusion of heaters. They are usually installed in the case two or more, and also make several modes of heating. One - more powerful, which includes all the heaters, the rest is softer - one or two heaters can work, depending on their total number. What is it for? In summer, you can use a gentle heating - water and so quickly heats up, in winter, usually use all the heaters - wait less. In general, it is possible in this way to regulate the heating rate of the boiler. We lowered all the hot water and needed the next batch quickly - turned on to full capacity, there is no such need - you can not overload the network by turning it on half-power.
Where can I install a storage water heater read here.
What materials do the tanks and the features of their service make?
Tanks of storage water heaters come from stainless and ordinary steel. The ordinary steel is covered with protective layers of enamel, stainless steel does not need them. From this point of view it is easy to say which water heater is better - with a stainless steel tank. But it is also more expensive. But the service life of such equipment is much greater - enamel, even the best quality, with time flakes.
To extend the life of the enamel coating, magnesium anodes are placed in the storage steel water heaters. They require periodic replacement - during operation, they "melt", and a special sensor with an indicator displayed on the front panel monitors their condition. The status of the indicator monitors the need to replace the anode.
How to install a boiler (storage water heater) with your own hands, look here.
How to choose and which is better
In most cases, storage water heaters are put in private houses or in apartments of multi-storey houses, where there is no centralized hot water supply. The equipment is selected according to the volume of the tank. If you do not like the restrictions, you can count at the rate of 50 liters of hot water per member of the family. That should be enough. In the tank, it heats, say, up to 70 °. To use such it is unreal, you will dilute it. As a result per person will be 100-150 liters of warm water (depends on the water temperature in the water pipe). This is without taking into account the fact that during the flow the water is also heated.
About the material of tanks is clear: there is a possibility, it is better to take a storage electric water heater with a tank of stainless steel. The number of modes of operation is not so critical, but also a good option, although such models because of a more complex scheme, are more expensive.
|Name||Tank capacity||Power||Dimensions (W * D * H)||Heating time||Tank||Min / Max Pressure||Control||Price|
|Electrolux EWH 50 Centurio DL||50 l||433 * 255 * 860 mm||70 min||stainless steel||0,7-6 Bar||electronic||$ 190|
|Ariston ABS VLS Evo PW 100||100 l||2.5 kW||506 * 275 * 1250 mm||91 min||stainless steel||0.2-6 Bar||electronic||$ 185|
|Atlantic Vertigo 30||30 l||1 kW||490 * 290 * 601 mm||46 min||enamel||0.5-6 Bar||mechanical||240 $|
|Thermex Flat Plus IF 80 V||80 l||1.3 kW||493 * 270 * 1025 mm||80 min||stainless steel||electronic||$ 300|
|Zanussi Smalto ZWH / S 50||50 l||2 kW||470 * 250 * 860 mm||95 min||enamel||0.75-6 Bar||mechanical||$ 180|
|Gorenje OTG50SLB6||50 l||2 kW||420 * 445 * 690 mm||115 min||enamel||0.75-6 Bar||electronic||$ 155|
About which company is best to choose. Which water heater is best objectively to tell you no one can - different needs and requests from people. But here's to draw some conclusions on the experience of operation can be. People respond well about storage heater companies:
- Termex. If we talk about the prices for water heaters with a stainless steel tank, then at the price of this company there are no competitors. The quality is difficult to say, the reviews are different.
- Real. Not bad storage boilers, the main thing is that the consumables in your city were.
- OSO. Very good, but expensive.
- Electrolux (AEG). A well-known company with stable quality.
Flowing water heaters
The flow-through water heater has more modest dimensions. This is a small box that is attached to the wall. Inside, too, is a tank with a TEN, but their dimensions are very miniature, and TENs usually have the form of a spiral - to better heat the flowing water.
One of the necessary elements is the flow sensor. It tracks the appearance of water movement in the device (the tap is opened) and gives the command to turn on the heater. When the valve closes, the flow sensor switches off the power supply.
There is also a thermostat, which sets the water temperature. It can be a swivel type with a scale, there are models with an electronic display with a button or touch control.
Pressure and non-pressure continuous water heaters, their connection
There are two options for running water heaters - system and individual. The system crashes into the risers of cold and hot water, called still pressure. Several points can be provided at once - for example, a shower, a sink and a washbasin. There are system flow water heaters at 220 V with a relatively small power consumption (about 8-9 kW), but they can heat up a small amount of water. There are installations very powerful - up to 32 kW, but they are three-phase - by 380 V.
Pressure headers have two large classes.
Individual flow-through water heaters - non-pressure - are connected to cold water. At the outlet they have a flexible hose with a nozzle or, as an option, a tap for washing. These devices are good for the period of DHW shutdown or as a solution to the problem of hot water in the country.
Please note, the shut-off valve only on the supply and close hot water can only be used with it. Connecting the shut-off valves at the outlet sooner or later will lead to a rupture of the tank, in which the water is heated. This happens when the automatic shutdown of the water does not work. And it is not designed to track the flow of water, and tracks only its appearance / loss at the entrance. So, sooner or later, the failure occurs.
When connecting the pressure and non-pressure versions, earthing is mandatory. In general, it is desirable to draw power supplies to such separations with a separate line - a large consumed power, a combination of water and electricity - an unsafe combination. Normal wiring may not survive. Therefore, a separate line is required from the switchboard, on which there is an automatic device and an RCD.
Why you need a safety valve for a water heater read here.
Type of management
There are two types of control of flow type water heaters:
- Hydraulic. When the input is a flow sensor (the first photo in the section), at the signal of which the heating element is turned on / off. The disadvantage of such a system is that it always turns on at one power. Some models have several power modes, but they must be forced each time (press the buttons).
- Electronic. The work is controlled by a microprocessor, which monitors the state of the device using several sensors. These systems allow you to maintain the desired temperature.
Hydraulic-operated water flow heaters can only add a certain number of degrees to the water temperature. Which exactly depends on the power of the heater, but on average this is of the order of 20-25 ° C. This means that in summer you will get quite warm water at the exit - about + 40 ° C, and in winter it will be only slightly warmer + 20 ° C, since the incoming cold is very cold and the device can not be heated to higher temperatures.
More powerful models - system, with a prefix Sistem - have electronic control and can cope with the task of maintaining the set temperature. Their lack - it requires a lot of power and high cost. But if you have such an opportunity, the automation will maintain a constant (set by you) temperature at any time of the year. At full capacity, the installation works rarely, but still it is required to pull the power line at maximum power and calculate the automatic device and the RCD.
What are flow-through heaters made of
The inner filling can be:
- Of copper. These models differ very not bad characteristics - quickly heat up water. Copper has a high thermal conductivity, quickly transfers heat.
- Stainless steel. Not a bad option, durable (if the water is not hard).
- From plastic. The cheapest and not the most durable. Although the plastic is used special, it is better not to buy such protons.
The choice of a flow-through water heater according to this characteristic is obvious. If possible, buy with a copper "stuffing", but also stainless work well.
Pull power copper wire section of at least 3.5 mm (with power consumption up to 7 kW) and 4 mm - up to 12 kW. By the value of the current consumed, an automaton is selected, the RCDs are taken a step higher with a leakage current of 10 mA. With this method of connection and a normally working grounding, there will be no problems.
Features of choice
When choosing a flow-through water heater, you need to focus on several indicators:
- minimum / maximum working pressure;
- power consumption - not a large number of kilowatts is allocated to a house or apartment, so that not all can connect a 12-20 kW unit;
- material from which the tank and the heating element is made;
- degree of protection - whether or not to mount in the immediate vicinity of the tap or shower;
- with what water can it work (is it permissible to use it with water of your type - hard, with a high iron content, etc.);
- the degree of heating - to what temperature and how much water can be heated in 1 minute.