Even if the house has centralized water supply, the well will not be superfluous: it is too expensive to water the garden or flower beds with tap water, and in case of a trip it will be very convenient. At the dacha, it is generally the main and only source of life-giving moisture. So its value is hard to overestimate. It is not easy to build a well with your own hands, but you can. Even if you decide to hire a brigade (hard it is in the physical plan), you will need to control them. Not everyone does as it should. More often, as it is easier and faster. So you need to know how it should be.
- 1 How to choose a place
- 2 Best time
- 3 Type and structure
- 4 Ways of digging
- 5 Putting into operation
- 6 Safety during work
- 7 How to dig a well: photo report
How to choose a place
The most reliable way is to order hydrogeological studies. You will get the exact place where you need to dig with the analysis of the water that will be there. But this service is not cheap and justifies itself, if you plan to use water as a drinking water, that is, near the house of permanent residence. At the dacha you need it mostly for technical needs, and until you can clean only the part that goes into the house.
If you do not want to order research, orient yourself at once to several signs:
- the position of the wells in neighboring areas;
- analysis of growing plants;
- observations of insects and animals;
- folk methods.
All these methods are only ways of approximate determination of the place where aquifers can lie. None of them gives guarantees, but if as a result of several methods you get a more or less specific place, it makes sense to try to dig a well here.
Wells in neighboring areas
You probably know that the rock beds are completely uneven, just like the aquifers. If the neighbors have water at a distance of 6 meters, this does not mean that you will have it exactly there too. It may be higher or lower, but it can go away sharply away. So this is only an approximate "fire" on the ground.
This method is suitable if the site has not yet been plowed. Examining the "local" vegetation, revealing islands of characteristic grass. Not single plants (can be accidentally entered), namely islets, glades, etc.
Observations of wildlife and nature
The best predictors are small gnats. In the warm season, in windless weather, in the evening, before sunset, look at the site. If there are places where the "hanging" poles of midge, most likely in this place, and pretty close, is the water.
To see this, you can observe this place in the morning. If the water is really close, there will be a fog.
We find a clay pot. Preferably not glazed. But it's hard to find such a thing, so any jug or pot will do. Is not that so? You can use an ordinary pot, only with a wide pan.
In the dishes pour dried in the oven silica gel. No it, do not know where to get it? Take the ceramic bricks, break it to the state of small crumbs (not flour, but crumbs), dry a couple of hours in the oven. Fall asleep in the bowl to the top, tie a dry cotton with a rag. Only in such a way that it does not get loose. Weigh and write the result.
In the proposed location / locations of water dig a pit 1-1.5 meters deep, put a pan in it and sprinkle it with earth. Leave for a day. Then dig and weigh again. The more the mass changed, the more water in a given place (or closer to the surface it is).
There are two periods when digging a well is best: this is the second half of August and the middle of winter - after two weeks of frost. At this time, the groundwater table is the lowest, there is almost no perch. So it will be easy to work and you will not miss the definition of debit - it is at this time minimal and you will not have to suffer from lack of water in the most detailed.
If the team works, they can manage for a few days: two or three, occasionally more. If you plan to work alone, there may not be enough time in August. This is the "frontier" zone - before the rains. Then you need to start work earlier. Maybe from the beginning of August. At this time there are not enough vadose, and by the middle of the month (even if you work one evening) you will be near the aquifer. In general, try to calculate so that the outlet to the aquifer falls on the most "waterless" time. It is also desirable to finish the waterproofing of the walls.
Type and structure
If you have decided on the place, it remains to choose which one you will make your mine. You can dig only a mine well, and the Abyssinian well can drill. The technique here is quite different, so we'll go further on the mine well.
Type of well mine
The most common today is a well of concrete rings. Common - because it's so easy. But it has serious shortcomings: joints are not tight at all and through them rainwater, thawed water enters into the water, and together with it both what is dissolved in it and what has sunk.
The joints of the rings, of course, try to seal, but those methods that will not be effective will not be used: water should be suitable at least for irrigation. And just to glue the compounds with a solution is very brief and inefficient. The crevices constantly increase, and then through them not only rain or melt water gets, but also animals, insects, worms, etc.
There are rings with a lock. Between them, they say, it is possible to lay rubber gaskets, which will ensure tightness. There are rings with locks, but they cost more. But the gaskets are practically not found, as well as the wells with them.
The same "disease" suffers and a mine of logs, only slots even more. Yes, so did our grandfathers. But they, in the first place there was no other way, and secondly, they did not use so much chemistry in the fields.
From this point of view it is better to have a mine made of solid concrete. It is cast directly in place, putting a removable formwork. They poured the ring, dug it, put the formwork again, stuck the reinforcement, and poured another one. We waited until the concrete "grabbed", again removed the formwork, we dig.
The process is very slow. This is the main drawback. In the rest only pluses. Firstly, it turns out quite cheaply. The cost is only for two galvanized sheets, and then for cement, sand, water (proportions 1: 3: 0.6). It's much cheaper than rings. Secondly, it is hermetically sealed. No stitches. Pouring is about once a day and because of the uneven top edge, almost a monolith is obtained. Just before pouring the next ring, scrape off the surface of the raised and almost grabbed cement milks (gray dense film).
How to determine the aquifer
By technology, the soil is removed inside the ring and under it. As a result, under its weight, it settles. Here is the soil that you take out and will serve as a landmark.
Typically, water lies between two waterproof layers. Most often - it's clay or limestone. The aquifer is usually sand. It can be small, like a sea, or large with small particles of pebbles. Often there are several such layers. As the sand has gone, it means that soon water will appear. As it appeared on the bottom, it is necessary to dig for some time, taking out the wet soil. If the water comes actively, you can stop at this. The aquifer layer may not be too large, so there is a risk that it can pass through. Then you have to dig to the next. Deeper water will be cleaner, but how much deeper is unknown.
Further, the well is pumped - the submersible pump is thrown and water is pumped out. This cleans it, slightly deepening, and determine its debit. If you are satisfied with the speed of arriving at the water, you can stop here. If it is not enough, you must quickly pass through this layer. With the pump running, continue to remove the soil until it passes through this layer. Then they dig to the next water-carrier.
Bottom filter in the well
If you are satisfied with the speed of the incoming water and its quality, you can make a bottom filter. These are three layers of keros of different factions, which are stacked on the bottom. They are needed in order that as little as possible silt and sand fall into the water. To make the bottom filter for the well work, it is necessary to lay out the stones correctly:
- The bottom is laid with large stones. It should be quite large cobblestones. But in order not to take much of the height of the water column, use a more flat shape. Spread at least two rows, and do not try to keep them standing, but with gaps.
- The average fraction is filled with a layer of 10-20 cm. The dimensions are such that the stones or pebbles do not fall into the gaps between the bottom layer.
- The uppermost, shallowest layer. Pebbles or stones of small size with a layer of 10-15 cm. Sand will settle in them.
With this arrangement of the fractions, the water will be more pure: first on the large stones the largest inclusions settle, then as they move upwards, all the smaller ones.
Ways of digging
There are two technologies for digging a well. Both methods are used, just at different depths. And both have shortcomings.
Alternate setting of rings
The first ring is put on the ground, which is gradually removed from the inside and under the rim. Gradually the ring goes down. Here is a very important point: you need to ensure that it falls down strictly down, without distortion. Otherwise, the mine will turn out to be inclined and, sooner or later, the sediment of the rings will stop.
To avoid skewing, it is necessary to control the verticality of the walls. Do this by tying a plumb line to the bar and laying it on the ring. In addition, you can control the top level.
When the upper edge of the ring is leveled with the ground level, roll the next. He is put strictly on top. Work continues. If on the first ring the soil can be tossed over the side with a shovel with a shortened cut, then the next one must already be removed with the help of a gate or a tripod and block. Thus, at least two people must work, and we need to roll the rings, at least three, or even four. So you can not dig a well yourself, in one hand. Unless to adapt a winch.
So, gradually, the depth of the well is increased. When the ring falls into a level with the ground, a new one is put on it. For the descent use hammered staples or ladder ladders (more correctly - staples).
Advantages of this method of digging a well:
- You can check how tight and smooth the ring became.
- You can lay the very rubber gaskets, which will ensure tightness or put them on the solution.
- The walls do not crumble.
It's all pluses. Now about the minuses. Working inside the ring is inconvenient and difficult physically. Therefore, this method is mainly digging to a small depth - 7-8 meters. And in the mine they work in turn.
One more thing: when you dig a deck with rings, accelerate the settling process and facilitate the passage of soil, you can use a knife. It is made of concrete, it is poured into the ground at the very beginning. For its formation, dig a groove in a circle. In cross section, it has a triangular shape (see figure). Its internal diameter coincides with the inner diameter of the rings used, the outer diameter is slightly larger. After a set of concrete strength, this ring is put "in-house" and begin work.
Installation of rings after reaching the aquifer
First, a shaft without rings is being dug. In this case, follow the walls. At the first signs of shedding put the rings inside and continue to deepen the first way.
If the entire soil does not fall off, reaching the aquifer, stop. With the help of a crane or manipulator, rings are laid in the shaft. Then, deepen another pair of rings by the first method, increasing the production rate.
The technique of excavating soil here is the same: while depth allows, it is simply thrown away with a shovel. Then put the tripod and the gate and lift in buckets. After installing the rings, the gap between the walls of the shaft and the ring is poured and trampled. The upper several rings can be sealed from the outside (bitumen impregnation, for example, or other lubricating waterproofing).
When working, it is also necessary to control the verticality of the walls, but it can be adjusted within certain limits. The control method is the same - a plumb line tied to the bar and run into the shaft.
Advantages of this method:
- The mine is wider, it is more convenient to work in it, which makes it possible to make deeper wells.
- It is possible to make external sealing of several upper rings, which minimizes the possibility of getting the most polluted water.
- It is difficult to check the tightness of the joint of the rings: in the shaft during the installation is prohibited. It is impossible to turn the already installed ring in it. It weighs hundreds of kilograms.
- You can skip the moment and the mine will fall.
- The density of backfilling between the mine wall and the rings remains less than the "native" soil. As a result, thawed and rainwater will seep into the depths, where through the cracks get inside. To avoid this, make around the well a protective circle of waterproof material (waterproofing membrane) with a slope from the walls of the well.
Putting into operation
If you think you've dug a well, and that's it, it's not at all. You still have a series of daily exercises. Here they can be done with their own hands, without attracting help. First you need to make a waterproofing of the walls from the outside, then - clean and wash the walls out and pump out water - clean the well.
After the well is excavated, a couple of days the rings settle down and take their places. At this time, nothing to do is not necessary, but you can do external waterproofing.
If the well was done according to the second method - first we mined the mine, then we put the rings - this stage is a little easier. You will need to slightly widen the gap to make a waterproofing. If the rings were put right away, you'll have to dig around a decent ditch. At least until the middle of the second ring. When the soil is removed, proceed to the waterproofing.
It is best to use the lubricating oil. You can - bitumen mastic, you can - other compounds. In principle, it is possible to weld or glue the roll waterproofing, in the extreme case - wrap it with a film. The film is cheaper than all, but it will serve no more than two years, and then subject to the purchase of expensive and reinforced.
Since you still, dug up the well, insulate it. Let while you in a summer residence in the winter do not appear, but can, then you will come and cold. So take care of the availability of water in advance.
Wall cleaning and internal sealing of seams
A couple of days after the well was dug up and a "glass of villages", go down inside with a broom, sweep the walls. Then you wash the walls: pour, sweep already clean broom. Again, pour, then - a broom. The water was pumped out and drained away. The next day the procedure was repeated. So - days five-seven-ten. Until the inside and water are clean.
One more thing. Not all brigades immediately miss the joints of the rings. Then after the first cleaning you need to cover the joints with a solution (cement: sand in a ratio of 1: 3). To improve the effect, you can add PVA or liquid glass (instead of some part of the water, or dilute PVA water). It is also desirable to hedge against horizontal shifts of the rings. Especially if they are without locks. To do this, the neighboring rings are fastened with metal plates, which are fastened to the anchor. This measure is strictly necessary on unstable loose or strongly puchinistyh soils.
After the walls are washed, the water is pumped several times, you can use water. But that nothing attacked inside, it is necessary to close it. How to make a house for a well, read here.
On some features of digging wells and cleaning it, look in the video.
Safety during work
The digging of a well (with their own hands or brigade) is a hard and dangerous job, especially after the first three rings are dug in. Buckets have to be pulled out with a winch, a collar or with the help of a block, and it's heavy. Can break off - or the rope or the handle can not sustain. Therefore, it is necessary to observe the safety rules:
- The worker at the bottom should put a helmet on his head.
- Buckets should have a powerful handle, better - welded, made of thick wire in several layers.
- Tie buckets to a strong rope, at the end of which is fixed a powerful carbine with a reliable locking system.
- Periodically check the condition of the rope, the handle of the bucket and the carbine.
- When lifting buckets working below should be on the opposite side.
- Work down one at a time.