The liquid flowing in the centralized water supply system can only be considered very conditional for use in technical purposes - for washing, washing dishes, etc. With a very large stretch, it can be used for cooking, and you can not drink it without boiling at all. To bring it to normal, it is necessary to use different types of filters for water purification. There are inexpensive installations, but they tend to be characterized by low productivity and medium quality of cleaning, and there are expensive systems that can give ideal results.
The situation with water supply from a well or well is not any better. There is still a high probability of bacterial contamination, so purification should be even better. In general, it is necessary to carry a sample for analysis, and then, according to the results, to select the required types of filters for water purification. In private homes, this is usually a multi-stage system, which as a result gives water of drinking quality.
- 1 Cleansing from mechanical impurities
- 2 Inexpensive types of filters for water purification to drinking water
- 3 Filters for water purification from dissolved substances
Cleansing from mechanical impurities
The water that flows in our aqueduct contains grains of sand, fragments of rust, metal, windings, etc. These impurities are called mechanical impurities. Their presence has a bad effect on the durability of the shut-off valves (valves, valves, etc.) and household appliances. Therefore, in apartments and in private houses they put filters at the entrance for their removal. Types of filters for water purification from mechanical impurities are few. This is with the grid and discs as filter elements.
The filter element in the mechanical filters is a grid. According to the cell size, these filters are divided into coarse (300-500 μm) and fine (larger than 100 μm) devices. Can stand cascade - first rough cleaning (mud maker), then thin. Often a coarse filter is placed at the entrance to the pipeline, and devices with a smaller cell are placed in front of the household device, since different techniques may require different degrees of water purification.
The orientation of the bulb in which the filter element is installed, they are straight and oblique. Skew creates less hydraulic resistance, because most often put them. At installation it is necessary to observe a direction of a stream, it is specified on the case by an arrow.
There are two types of mechanical filters - with auto-washing and without. Devices without auto-washing are small in size, their input / output diameters are selected according to the dimensions of the pipe into which they are installed. Housing material - stainless steel or brass, threaded connections - different (external or internal thread is selected as necessary). The cost of this type of mechanical filters is low - around a hundred rubles, although branded ones can cost much more.
Since the nets are clogged and need to be cleaned periodically, the lower part of the bulb is removable. If necessary, unscrew it, take it out and rinse the mesh, then all return (all work is done by covering the water beforehand).
Mesh with auto washing
Mechanical filter with auto-wash (self-washed) has a branch pipe and a tap in the bottom of the bulb with a filter element. A branch pipe is drained through a hose or a piece of pipe into the sewage system. If it is necessary to wash such a filter, simply open the tap. Water under pressure flushes the contents into the sewage system, the faucet is closed, it is possible to operate further.
This type of mechanical water filter often contains a manometer. It determines whether the grid is clogged or not. The pressure became lower - it's time to clean the filter. If the bulb of the device is transparent, the manometer may not be - you can determine the appearance of the grid or the walls of the bulb. In this segment, oblique filters for water are rare, but still there are.
A pressure reducing valve can be integrated in the housing to neutralize pressure drops. There are models with the possibility of installing an auto washing unit.
The tie-down of this type of mechanical filter is slightly more difficult - you need to go to the sewer, but there are also models with different types of threads, so that you can use as few adapters as possible.
Mechanical cleaning filters can be muffled, they can be flanged. Flanged - this is usually the main equipment for water pipes with high pressure and diameters. Can be used in the construction of a private house water supply.
Disk (ring) filters
This type of equipment is less common, though less inclined to silting, has a large filtration area, can detain different particles in size.
A filtering element is a set of polymer discs on the surface of which there are depressions and scratches of different depths. Disks in the assembled state are tightly pressed against each other, the water passes through the hollows in the discs, while particles of larger diameter settle on them. The movement of the water is spiral, so that the suspended matter is removed qualitatively.
When the water filter is clogged, the discs are removed from the casing, spread out and washed. After that, put in place. Periodically, the discs must be replaced, the life of the filter element depends on the amount of dirt and the quality of the discs themselves. There are models with auto-washing.
Mounted in the pipe rupture, the bulb can be pointed up or down (see the installation instructions).
Inexpensive types of filters for water purification to drinking water
Cleaned from mechanical impurities water can be used for domestic needs, served in household appliances, but for drinking or cooking it is only suitable conditionally - after boiling. To be able to drink it without boiling, fine filters are needed, which detain a significant part of the substances dissolved in water and disinfect it. Consider how to make tap water potable, the types of water filters that can be used.
The simplest, but not very productive way to make tap water potable is to pass it through a filter pitcher. Purification occurs in a replaceable cartridge through which water flows. A good cartridge contains the following filter media:
- polypropylene fibers for the deposition of residues of mechanical impurities;
- Activated carbon with additives to remove microorganisms, chlorine compounds;
- ion-exchange resin for the removal of manganese and calcium salts, radionuclides, iron compounds, heavy metals;
- porous activated carbon for clarification of water, sedimentation of organic matter.
Distinguish the filter-jugs for the composition of the cartridge, its resource (how much water can be cleaned) and by volume. The smallest models of desktop filters can clean 1.5-1.6 liters of water at a time, the largest - about 4 liters. Just keep in mind that the column "filter volume" indicates the volume of the bowl, the useful volume (the amount of purified water) is much less - about two times.
|Name||Volume of the bowl||Resource cleaning module||Degree of cleaning||Optional Devices||Price|
|AKVAFOR Art "Ice Age"||3.8 liters||300 l||Reduces water hardness, removes mechanical and organic impurities, active chlorine, heavy metals||4-6 $|
|AQUAFOR Prestige||2.8 liters||300 l||Slightly reduces water hardness, removes mechanical, organic impurities, active chlorine, heavy metals||Resource indicator||5-6 $|
|AQUAFOR Premium "Dachny"||3,8 l||300 l||Reduces water hardness, removes mechanical and organic impurities, active chlorine, heavy metals||Large funnel - 1.7 liters||$ 8-10|
|Filter-pitcher Barrier Extra||2,5 l||350 l||Depending on the type of filter||Cassettes for different types of water they go in + to the cost of the jug||5-6 $|
|Filter-pitcher Barrier Grand Neo||4,2 l||350 l||Depending on the type of filter||Cassettes for different types of water they go in + to the cost of the jug||$ 8-10|
|Filter-pitcher Barrier Smart||3.3 L||350 l||Depending on the type of filter||Cassettes for different types of water they go in + to the cost + mechanical indicator of the resource||$ 9-11|
|Filter-pitcher Geyser Aquarius||3,7 l||300 l||For hard water with bacterial treatment||Cartridge replacement indicator||$ 9-11|
|Filter pitcher Geyser Hercules||4 l||300 l||From heavy metals, iron, organic compounds, chlorine||2 liter hopper||$ 7-10|
Filter tap for tap
Very compact filter for running tap water, which is put on the tap. The rate of purification is from 200 ml / min to 6 l / min. The degree of purification depends on the composition of the filter part, but usually it is not much different from the filter-jugs.
By the way of working there are two types of filters on the tap - some are put on immediately before it is used, others have the ability to switch to the "no cleaning" mode. Convenient, of course the second option, but the switches are often broken. As a temporary measure - an excellent way out, but "permanently" it is better to choose another device.
|Name||Performance||Cassette life||What clears||Manufacturer country||Price|
|Defort DWF-600||up to 20 l / h||3000-5000 l||organic substances, pesticides, heavy metals, chlorine and radioactive elements||China||2 $|
|Defort DWF-500||up to 20 l / h||3000-5000 l or 6 months||organic substances, pesticides, heavy metals, chlorine and radioactive elements||China||2 $|
|Aquaphor Modern-1||1-1,2 l / min||40000 l||from active chlorine, lead, cadmium, phenols, benzenes, pesticides||Russia||$ 13-15|
|Aquaphor "B300" with bacterial aftertreatment||0,3 l / min||1000 l||It is recommended to use in case of possible bacterial contamination of water||Russia||4-5 $|
|Geyser Euro||0.5 l / min||3000 l||carcinogenic and organic compounds, chlorine, iron, heavy metals, nitrates, pesticides and microorganisms||Russia||$ 13-15|
|Philips WP-3861||2 l / min||2000 l||chlorine compounds||$ 180|
|Sorbent SPRING-3M||2 l / min||3600 l||clearing from free chlorine, de-watering||$ 8-10|
Filters under / on the sink - a way to get a large amount of drinking water
For greater productivity and better water purification filters are used that are installed under or on the sink, and they can also be mounted on a wall.
There are two types of such systems - cartridge and reverse osmosis systems. Cartridge - cheaper, and this is their plus, and the minus is that you need to monitor the condition of the filter element and change it in time, otherwise all the accumulated dirt passes into the water.
Reverse osmosis systems are already more technological equipment, which has a much higher cost, but the quality of cleaning and productivity is much higher. These water purification plants use a multilayer membrane, each layer of which delays pollution of a certain type.
In cartridge filters, the quality of cleaning depends on the number of cleaning stages - individual filter elements that "catch" a certain type of contamination. There are single-stage systems, there are two, three and even four step filters.
In single-stage universal inserts are used, having a multilayer structure. They are inexpensive, but whether you are satisfied with the degree of purification is difficult to predict. The composition of water in different regions is very different and it would be desirable to select / replace filters as needed. And so, we have to rely on the versatility of the liner.
In multi-stage cartridge filters, the body consists of several bulbs, each of which has a separate / special filter element that removes certain contaminants. The flasks are connected in series by means of overflows, flowing from one flask to the other, water and purified. In this case, it is possible to select the types of filters for water purification specifically for your analysis, which undoubtedly will improve the quality of cleaning.
|Name of cartridge filter||A type||Number of cleaning stages||For what kind of water||Cartridge life||Performance||Price|
|BWT Woda-Pure||Household with the possibility of washing||1 cartridge + diaphragm||medium hardness||10,000 liters or 6 months||1,5-3 l / min||$ 70|
|Raifil PU897 BK1 PR (Big Blue 10 ")||Trunking||1||cold tap water||$ 26|
|Geyser Suite||Under the sink||3||soft / medium / hard / glandular||7000 l||3 l / min||$ 70-85|
|GEYSER GEYSER-3 BIO||Under the sink||3 + protection against viruses and bacteria||soft / hard / very hard / ferruginous||7000 l||3 l / min||110-125 $|
|Geyser-1 Euro||Desktop Option||1||normal / soft / hard||7000 l||1.5 l / min||32-35 $|
|Pentek Slim Line 10||Trunking||1||19 l / min||$ 20|
|Expert M200||Under the sink||3||normal / soft||6 000 - 10 000 liters depending on the cartridge||1-2 l / min||60-65 $|
|Brita On Line Active Plus||Under the sink||1||flowing||2 l / min||80-85 $|
|AQUAFILTER FP3-HJ-K1||Under the sink||4 + protection against bacterial and viruses||for cold water||3 l / min||60-90 $|
|Expert Hard Barrier||Under the sink||3||for hard water||10,000 liters or 1 year||2 l / min||55-60 $|
|Atoll D-31 (Patriot)||Under the sink||3||highly chlorinated water||3.8 l / min||$ 67|
Desktop cartridge filters for running water
The most inexpensive version of cartridge filters is installed next to the sink. These are miniature models that are small in size. Can be one or two stepped, on the body there is a small-sized faucet. The filter is connected with hoses to the special outlet of the mixer, it can be connected directly to the water supply.
These are usually cartridge single-stage filter-flasks, which are put after the mechanical filter. They remove a significant amount of impurities, making the water suitable for drinking and protecting household appliances from the formation of scale, other deposits. Their drawback is the need to change the filter elements.
For the convenience of tracking the condition and degree of soiling, the flask is made transparent. If there is visible contamination, replace the cartridge with another one. In some models it is possible to independently restore the efficiency of the cleaning element - it is washed under running water. In other models, this is prohibited, so read the instructions carefully.
From the above described differ a large number of flasks, each of which has a cartridge that removes various types of contaminants. The more purification steps, the purer the outlet water is. Select the composition of the filter elements for a specific composition of water (carefully read the technical specifications and description).
These plants can also be put on the mainline, or you can put them under the sink and get high quality drinking water.
The most advanced technology for water treatment today is reverse osmosis. Here, multi-layer membranes are used, which let only water and oxygen molecules pass without missing even the smallest contaminants. Water is obtained practically without the content of salts, which is also not good. This is precisely the disadvantage of reverse osmosis systems. To neutralize it, the units are equipped with mineralizers, which add the necessary minerals.
|Name||Number of cleaning stages||Resource / frequency of replacement||Filtration speed||Notes||Price|
|Geyser Prestige 2||6th||1 time per year||0,15 l / min||Tank for storage of purified water 7,6 l||$ 70-85|
|Atoll A-450 (Patriot)||6th||prefilters - 6 months, membrane-24-30 months, coal post-filter - 6 months.||120 l / day||There is an external tank||$ 115-130|
|Barrier Pro Osmo 100||6th||1 stage - from 3 to 6 months, 2 steps - every 5 to 6 months, 3 steps - from 3 to 6 months, 4 stages - from 12 to 18 months (up to 5000 liters), 5 steps - every 12 months.||12 l / h||There is an external tank||95-120 $|
|Aquafor DWM 101S Morion (with mineralizer)||6th||Prefilters - 3-4 months, the membrane - 18-24 months. Post-filter-mineralizer - 12 months.||7.8 l / h||External tank + mineralizer||120-135 $|
|Barrier K-OSMOS (K-OSMOS)||4||5000 liters (no more than a year)||200 l / day||External tank||120-150 $|
|Atoll A-450 STD Compact||5||prefilters - 6 months, membrane - 24-30 months, coal post-filter - 6 months.||120 l / day||External tank||$ 150|
The disadvantages of this system include a small performance - in a minute can run only one glass or so of clean water. It is clear that such a speed is uncomfortable, so that it is felt less, manufacturers complete the installation of tanks for purified water, which are already connected to the cranes.
Filters for water purification from dissolved substances
In addition to mechanical impurities in tap water, there is still a decent part of the periodic table: iron, mercury, manganese, potassium, calcium (hardness salts from which scale is formed), etc. All of them can be removed, but different filters are needed for this.
To remove iron
Most often in water from wells or wells there is a large amount of iron. It gives the water a rusty shade and a specific taste, is deposited on the walls of sanitary ware, clogs the stop valves, so it is desirable to remove it. Doing this makes sense if the amount of iron exceeds 2 mg / l.
The ferrous iron dissolved in water can be removed from the water by means of a catalytic filter. This is a large balloon into which the catalysts are poured, a small processor manages the work, that is, this equipment requires power supply.
The backfill located in the catalytic filter accelerates the oxidation of bivalent iron many times and precipitates it. Depending on the backfill, impurities of manganese, chlorine, and other substances dissolved in water can also be removed, and mechanical particles also settle on the bottom during the purification process. Removal of accumulated deposits occurs according to a specified schedule, usually at night. The backfill is rinsed under the pressure of water, everything merges into the sewage system, during the rinsing the water supply stops. Catalytic filters are a complex and expensive equipment, but they are the most durable of existing ones.
Another way to remove iron and water is aeration. In the balloon with pump-driven air, water is supplied in the form of a fine suspension of water (through injectors). The iron in it reacts with the oxygen of the air and its oxides are filtered out at the outlet. There are two types of filters for water purification of this type - pressure and non-pressure. For more active oxidation, oxidizer-hydrogen peroxide or sodium hypochlorite can be fed into these installations. In this case, biological cleaning of water is also carried out - from microbes and bacteria.
Read more about cleaning the water from a well and a well.
Purification of water from hardness salts
To soften the water use filters with ion-exchange resins. In the process of interaction with water, harmful impurities are replaced with neutral or useful impurities (an increase in the amount of iodine and fluorine).
Outwardly, this equipment is a tank, partially filled with ion-exchange material. In pair with it there is a second similar tank-regenerator, filled with highly concentrated salt solution (sold special in tablets, high degree of purification).
The advantages of filters for water purification of this type are high productivity, low noise level at work, rare replacement of backfill (it lasts 5-7 years). For water softening ion exchange filters are the best choice. Cons - in the need to use a regeneration tank with concentrated salt solution. To get drinking water, it is necessary to put a filter with activated carbon.